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  • Title:
    Descriptive info: .. Paikeday and Asst.. Maranda Bossert.. THOMAS M.. PAIKEDAY.. has been a full-time lexicographer of American and Canadian English dictionaries since 1964.. His important works include.. The Winston Dictionaries of Canadian English.. (Intermediate edition, 1969; Compact edition, 1970; Elementary edition, 1975),.. The New York Times Everyday Dictionary,.. 1982 (CD-ROM edition, Toronto, 1990),.. The Penguin Canadian Dictionary,.. 1990, and currently,.. The User's.. Webster Dictionary,.. 2000.. Paikeday is also the author of.. The Native Speaker Is Dead!.. (Toronto New York, 1985; Japanese edition, Tokyo, 1990), a discussion with Noam Chomsky and 40 other linguists, philosophers, psychologists, and lexicographers.. He has written numerous articles on lexicography and has been a regular columnist on new words and meanings for the quarterly.. English Today.. , Cambridge, England.. Paikeday pioneered the use of microcomputers for collecting and analyzing lexicographical data.. Please see  ...   companies merged); AT T v.. Bell Canada (re Calling card ), etc.. , as in the affidavits below.. User's.. is a registered trademark (TMA 544,618) reserved for exclusive use by owner to refer to language dictionaries in all forms, including hard-copy and computerized dictionaries.. A full explanation of the distinctiveness of the trademark is available to seriously interested parties.. For full biographical information, please see.. Directory of American Scholars,.. 11th edition,.. Marquis Who's Who in America.. (2002 to present),.. Canadian Who's Who.. (1988 to present),.. Who's Who in the World.. (1987 to present, except for a couple of years),.. Contemporary Authors,.. vol.. 65 (New Revised Series, 1998).. Best viewed with.. Internet Explorer.. Website design:.. Lisa Donnelly and Joan Ho.. Database programming:.. Jennifer Fizzard and Joan Ho.. Consultants:.. Joan Ho and Felix Bwalanda.. 2002, Thomas M.. Paikeday..

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  • Title:
    Descriptive info: THE EXPERTS SAY.. Here, at last, is a dictionary that is up to date, easy to use, and fun to read.. - John Robert Colombo, author / editor of over 100 reference books.. Your decades of experience, combined with your strong sense that a dictionary should be above all useful, have paid off.. I almost wish I could do another dictionary, so as to steal your innovations.. - Professor Emeritus Robert L.. Chapman, Drew University, lexicographer (1960-2002).. Its unique emphasis on collocations makes this dictionary particularly useful to new learners of English.. - David B.. Guralnik, Editor-in-Chief Emeritus,.. Webster's New World.. dictionaries (1941-2000), Simon Schuster, Cleveland, OH.. This works! And, it is a dictionary that will offer home, school, and professional readers and writers accurate definitions in context good for years to come.. - Professor William R.. Martin, Dept.. of Education, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.. Webster.. will be useful and usable - it is well named, the type is easy to read, the pronunciations do not require any key, the explanations are clear and concise, and the examples show idiomatic and typical usage.. - Professor Edward Gates, Asst.. Editor,.. Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary,.. 1961; President, Dictionary Society of North America, 1997-1999.. THE COMPETITION.. The User's Webster is a new and original work compiled for the 21st century, first published in 2000.. With apologies to the competition, it is not an abridged edition of any larger dictionary but a revised and expanded version of a smaller work.. It has always been the property of Thomas M.. Paikeday of Lexicography, Inc.. Its basic manuscript was compiled by hand and typewriter in the mid-Seventies by Paikeday working from his home office in Mississauga, Ont.. , on an author-publisher contract with G.. P.. Putnam's and its paperback division, Berkley Books.. After a change of management at Putnam-Berkley, the manuscript, marked up for typesetting, was offered to Times Books and a new author-publisher contract signed, thanks to help from the past president of Berkley and his former acquiring editor at Putnam.. The book was published in 1982 by Times Books as The New York Times Everyday Dictionary.. 1.. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF.. (physical).. (a) largest: (.. 5 x 8 , 1,290 pp.. , competition: 4 x 7 , 894 pp.. , wt.. 35 oz.. ; competition: 15 oz.. , same stock).. (b) best priced: dictionaries of comparable size and content cost over double, typically $17.. 95 (cf.. Merriam-Webster.. , 5 x 8 , 701 pp.. , 21 oz.. , $11.. 95).. $7.. 99 (competition: $5.. 99) gives you more bang for your buck.. (c) most entries (90,000, competition: 60,000).. (d) easiest-to-read type (8 pt.. , competition: 6.. 25 pt.. ).. (e) 80,000 illustrative phrases and sentences.. II.. EXCLUSIVE FEATURES.. (a) keyless pronunciations.. For a word you may want to look up:.. lexicography.. Merriam-Webster.. [key inside back cover].. [key, p.. vi].. Random House.. xiii].. Oxford American.. x].. American Heritage.. viii].. (lex.. uh.. COG.. ruh.. fee) [keyless, based on common English spellings].. 2.. For a word no one may want to look up:.. ant.. MWD.. WNW.. (ant).. RHD.. OAD.. AHD.. [pronunciation not needed].. (b) words defined in context showing idiomatic usage and collocations; sample entries:.. good, heavy, knock.. good.. (short oo ).. adj.. , comp.. bet.. ter.. (BET.. ur),.. superl.. best.. having a desirable quality:.. Rain is good for crops, but bad for a picnic;.. She's good at.. or.. in manual work; good with her hands; good to her in-laws; Isn't it good to be home at last!.. Does 2 + 2 = 4.. hold good.. (= be true).. under all conditions? She's been away a good.. (= considerable).. while; so tired I'm.. as good as.. (= almost)..  ...   villainous role.. ly.. ;.. ness.. knock.. (NOK).. a sharp blow with something hard or solid, as a fist, knuckles, gavel, etc.. :.. a loud knock on the door; the hard knocks one has to take in the struggle to make a living; the lessons everyone learns.. in the school of hard knocks.. --v.. strike, pound, or collide:.. to knock at.. on a neighbor's door; The boxer was knocked down in the first round; The ball knocked the vase off the table; No one likes to knock.. (.. Informal for.. attack or criticize).. a colleague; An engine that knocks.. (= makes a rattling noise).. needs antiknock in the fuel or no-knock gasoline.. knock about.. or.. around 1.. roam around.. treat someone roughly.. knock back.. consume, esp.. a quantity of liquor.. knock.. down 1.. to fell.. indicate an auctioned item as sold, with a knock of the gavel.. disassemble:.. furniture that comes knocked down in a carton.. knock off.. deduct:.. We'll knock 10% off the price.. stop work or other activity:.. We knock off (work) at 5 p.. m.. ;.. Will you please.. knock it off.. (= stop behaving like that)?.. finish routinely:.. a prolific writer who knocks off one book after another.. 4.. overcome or kill.. knock out 1.. defeat, as in boxing, or put a pitcher out of a game of baseball.. make inoperative:.. power lines knocked out by a storm; Two drinks are enough to.. knock him out.. (= make him unconscious).. --knock someone's socks off.. amaze or overwhelm.. knock together.. put together or compose hastily.. --knock.. er.. Go To Top of Page.. (c) Synonym discriminations shown by usage examples; sample entries:.. fragile,.. frail; nutritional, nutritious, nutritive; primal, primeval, primitive, primordial.. frag.. ile.. (FRAJ.. ul, -ile).. easy to break or destroy:.. a fragile toy, truce; in a fragile condition; a fragile environment; fragile happiness, health.. fra.. gil.. ty.. (fruh.. JIL.. tee).. frail.. weak or delicate:.. a man in frail health; a frail beauty, constitution, flower, smile, voice; frail excuses, hands, happiness, hopes, humanity.. nu.. tri.. ent.. (NEW.. tree.. unt).. a substance or ingredient that is nourishing:.. diets rich in nutrients; critical, healthful, staple, vital nutrients;.. adja.. the nutient content of a salad; the nutrient value of beef; In hydroponics, a water-based nutrient solution is used instead of soil;.. cpd:.. a nutrient-conscious generation; nutrient-packed cells; nutrient-poor water; nutrient-rich foods.. tion.. (new.. TRISH.. un).. the study of the process by which food is assimilated by an organism.. nourishment.. tion.. al.. having to do with nutrition:.. nutritional aspects, claims, data, deficiency, needs, value;.. ly.. --nu.. ist.. nutritional aspects, claims, data, deficiency, needs, value.. ist.. tious.. us).. having food value:.. delicious and nutritious dishes; Spinach is very nutritious; a nutritious breakfast, diet, food, meal.. tive.. truh.. tiv).. having to do with nourishment:.. nutritive functions, plasma; the nutritive process.. pri.. mal.. (PRY.. mul).. more basic than primitive in time:.. The Earth evolved out of primal material; the primal forces of matter and energy; primal elements, fears, struggles; the primal scream therapy for relieving tensions.. me.. val.. (pry.. MEE.. vul).. of the earliest times:.. the earth's primeval uninhabited condition; primeval forests, jungles.. --pri.. prim.. (PRIM.. 1.. of early times; undeveloped:.. primitive instincts, living conditions, tribes, weapons.. crude; lacking modern conveni- ences:.. The accommodation at the camp was rather primitive.. member of an undeveloped civilization:.. Some groups of people used to be called primitives.. one not trained or sophisticated:.. She's a primitive in her artistic leanings.. --prim.. tiv.. ism.. mor.. di.. MOR.. dee.. ul).. primeval:.. a primordial joy, urge, voice; Did matter originate as a primordial fireball of radiation? the primordial soup from which life arose according to some theories; a primordial swamp.. Sample Page.. The Competition.. ||..

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  • Title: Search Results
    Descriptive info: About Us.. |.. Home/Search.. User Guide.. Find A Word.. FINDING A WORD.. Most commonly used generic words and phrases are entered in the.. Webster Dictionary.. They include about 30,000 main entries, 60,000 subentries, and 100,000 definitions.. Names of persons and places, abbreviations, etc.. are outside the scope of this dictionary.. USING THE SEARCH BOX.. The search box may be used to find any of the 30,000 main entries.. Examples of main entries:.. green, greenback, greenbean, greenbelt, Green Beret, green card,.. etc.. Subentries are phrases, idioms, undefined derivatives, and other parts of speech of the main entry.. Examples of subentries are the six boldfaced items under the main entry.. green.. , namely:.. , greens, adj.. , v.. , greening, greenness.. To find subentries you type the relevant main entry in the search box.. green.. the color of greenery:.. a room decorated in yellows and greens.. a grassy plot, esp.. a golf course:.. the village green; a (golf) putting green; golf greens.. (= golf courses);.. :.. green(s) fees.. something green:.. You can turn left only on a green.. (= green light);.. salad.. greens.. (= vegetables).. 4.. pl.. environmentalists:.. The bill had to  ...   immigrants help in the greening of the nation; the greening of recycling, thanks to sorters and stackers that make it more convenient.. Please see User Guide for help on how to locate subentries within main entries.. TERMS CONDITIONS OF USE.. Webster Dictionary.. is being offered here free of charge for bona fide use by persons interested in the English language.. The copyright notices and other means of identification as they appear in the dictionary may not be removed or altered by anyone making fair use of the dictionary as allowed by applicable copyright law.. Any commercial use of all or part of the dictionary is strictly prohibited.. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without the written permission of the publisher.. Requests for permission to use or reproduce material from.. should be made to: Permissions Dept.. , Lexicography Inc.. , 2455 Yarmouth Cres, Oakville, Ontario, Canada L6L 2M9.. , 2002, Thomas M.. Paikeday.. Website design: Lisa Donnelly and Joan Ho.. Database programming: Jennifer Fizzard and Joan Ho.. Consultants: Sheraz Mohammed, Joan Ho and Felix Bwalanda..

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  • Title:
    Descriptive info: Review of User's Webster.. By Prof.. Edward Gates (emeritus, Indiana State University), in DICTIONARIES, Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America, Number 24 (2003), pp.. 274-280.. The User's Webster Dictionary.. Ed.. Thomas M.. Toronto and New York: Lexicography, Inc.. T.. he User's Webster Dictionary.. (UWD) is a compact, inexpensive, very usable mass-market paperback dictionary of the everyday vocabulary of North American English, with over 90,000 entries and 80,000 illustrative phrases and sentences in 1262 pages.. Its contents are the work of one man, Thomas M.. Paikeday, and it grows out of his two preceding works,.. The Penguin Canadian Dictionary.. (1990) and.. The New York Times Everyday Dictionary.. (1982).. As the word User's suggests, UWD is designed not as a record of the language but as a reference tool for information that the ordinary dictionary user will look for and can readily grasp.. Types of entry (e.. g.. , abbreviations) and kinds of information (e.. , etymology) are excluded that pose or answer few questions about usage.. Word use is presented in a way parallel to that in which people naturally acquire language, by showing words in typical combinations and structures.. The database of UWD is a corpus on CD-ROM which can generate more than twenty million citations.. It was begun by Paikeday in 1973 and expanded with additions from the.. Times.. , the online edition of the.. Toronto Globe and Mail.. , Info Globe on CD-ROM (1985), and hundreds of books and journals published in the U.. S.. , Canada, and Britain in the 1990s.. The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English.. (Benson, Benson, and Ilson [1986]) was a resource for collocational information.. In the front, UWD contains a Preface stating its underlying principles, and the new features in UWD that make it more usable and informative than its two predecessors.. The major innovation is the generous provision of collocations, which are useful in several ways - for a reader or listener to determine which numbered sense applies to the word being looked up, for a writer or speaker to select appropriate combinations with other words, and for both to distinguish synonyms.. Also in the front are a User's Guide with readable explanations and examples and a key to abbreviations used in the dictionary.. There are no additional sections in the back.. In the vocabulary section, a word is entered only once, in bold face.. Homographs that are different parts of speech are treated as sections of one entry; homographs with different origins may be in one entry (e.. ,.. compound.. ) or may be separate entries (e.. do.. and.. sow.. where part of speech and pronunciation also differ).. Derivatives and phrases are run in or run on.. Variant spellings not alphabetically adjacent are entries with cross references.. Canadian spellings are usually marked.. Cdn.. - e.. centre.. (in a note at the end of.. center.. ),.. defence.. (by a label at the entry for the variant).. The vocabulary includes most kinds of words and phrases, selected according to frequency of use in the corpus and inclusion in other mass-market dictionaries.. Biographical, geographical, and other encyclopedic entries are generally excluded, but many proper names in common use are either main or run-in entries (e.. Atlantic Ocean, Christmas, Medicaid, Sagittarius, Shakespeare, Torah, Muzak, and Old Glory.. ).. Of form types, abbreviations used only in writing are excluded (e.. ca.. ,.. e.. , and.. viz.. ), though one might think users would be as likely to look for their meanings as for word meanings.. A few initialisms and acronyms are entered - e.. AWOL.. BA.. ER.. MC.. TV.. WYSIWYG.. (misspelled.. ), but not.. BS.. CEO.. , or.. PM.. On the other hand, some forms which are not written or spoken as independent words, and which seem unlikely to be looked up, are included.. Of forty-five derivational affixes and combining forms checked, forty-two (including.. anti-.. auto-.. cyber-.. -able.. -ize.. -logy.. are entries.. The combining forms.. astro-.. electro-.. , and the suffix.. -ise.. are not.. The grammatical suffixes.. -er.. -est.. -ing.. -s.. are in, but not.. -ed.. However, of contractions, only -`s is an entry, not.. -'d.. -'ll.. -n't.. -'re.. , or -.. 've.. Most of the pronominal contractions with these (e.. we'll.. who's.. ) are entries; most of the adverbial ones (e.. where's.. ) are not.. The omissions provide an argument for dealing with related words as a group.. The coverage of lexemes larger than the word is extraordinary.. There are entries for all of twenty common phrasal verbs checked and seventeen of twenty common idioms.. Of thirty common idiomatic sentences (e.. The coast is clear.. ), twenty are entries or are explained in a glossed illustration.. Most English dictionaries enter few of these; one of those that enter the most,.. Webster's New World Dictionary of American English.. , Third College Edition (1988), enters or covers only twelve of the same thirty.. Table 1.. PHRASAL VERBS.. catch on.. come to terms with.. set off.. catch up.. come up with.. set out.. cave in.. crack down on.. set up.. come across.. get away with.. shape up.. come by.. give in.. take over.. come on.. give up.. take to.. come to grips with.. sell out.. Table 2.. IDIOMS CHECKED (ASTERISK INDICATES IDIOMS NOT IN UWD.. all ears.. from scratch.. piece of cake.. as is.. in the same boat.. small talk.. cost/pay an arm and a leg.. left-handed compliment.. this and that.. far cry.. *monkey on one's back.. *time and (time) again.. fat chance.. no dice.. to boot.. for crying out loud.. *on one's high horse.. tongue-tied.. for good.. under the weather.. free-for-all.. Table 3.. IDIOMATIC SENTENCES CHECKED.. UWD.. WNWD.. The ball is in your court.. o.. The buck stops here.. x.. Come on.. (One's) days are numbered.. The die is cast.. Don't hold your breath.. The emperor has no clothes.. The early bird gets the worm.. (One's) face fell.. The fat's in the fire.. (One's) heart is in one's mouth.. (One's) heart sank.. Here goes!..  ...   and countable.. In theory, additional grammatical information can be inferred from the illustrative examples, but those can show only what is typical, not what is unacceptable.. Perhaps these are not matters the average user looks for.. Moreover, constraints on verb use are weakening, and most speakers already know which nouns are collective.. Constraints on use are indicated by the labels mentioned above (e.. vulgar.. ) and such labels as.. Informal, Poetic, Substandard,.. Medicine.. , or by a note (e.. skinny.. [unfavorable term when used of persons] lean or thin ).. Acceptable combinations with other words - modifiers, verbs, head nouns, and prepositions - are indicated by means of illustrative examples; for example, at.. party.. the collocates.. to arrange, attend, crash, give, throw a party.. show verbs typically used with this noun.. Of course, since not all acceptable verbs can be listed, the user can not learn that one does not make a party.. Meaning is explained in several ways.. Each headword or main sense has a formal definition.. However, Paikeday believes that traditional ways of giving information in dictionaries are often of little help to users.. Abstract definitions often leave the dictionary user uncertain, and the examples given of their use are often inadequate.. Experiments Paikeday conducted showed that not only students but also academics could not match definitions of multi-sense words in a standard dictionary with the examples accompanying them (Paikeday 1990, vi).. To explain complexities of meaning, he provides for most words examples of use with larger than usual contexts.. Many are sentences that have the ring of everyday English.. They are not marked as quotations from the corpus, but may be based on it.. The meaning of a run-in word is often worked into the explanation of a base word (e.. class 4:.. a group of students, or.. classmates.. , instructed together, usu.. in the same room, or.. classroom.. A meaning may be indicated solely by illustration; e.. fun.. , one example runs in a phrase which is not formally glossed: Guy.. likes.. to poke fun at or.. make fun of.. Cora's walk.. A meaning may be explained by a paraphrase in parentheses; e.. whirl.. after swing round and round rapidly the last illustration is.. Her head whirled.. (= `she felt dizzy').. and she passed out.. Sometimes space is saved by telescoping two definitions:.. Canadian.. (a person) of or from Canada;.. run.. (cause) to move at a pace faster than walking.. He runs for exercise; She is out running her horse.. The reviewer checked to see what changes had been made in UWD in response to criticisms by two reviewers of its predecessor,.. (Rooney [1994] and Steiner [1990]).. Rooney (1994, 255) pointed out the inconsistency of Paikeday's objection to abstract definitions.. and his use at the entry for.. coloration.. of the state or manner of being colored.. This is unchanged in UWD.. Comparing this with the definition in.. Collins-COBUILD.. , this reviewer found The.. of something, for example of an animal or a plant, is the colours that you can see on it and the way that these colours are arranged in a pattern.. One might have expected that Paikeday would at least supply a sentence or two to clarify the meaning, but there is none.. Missing senses of.. grandfather clause.. grand slam.. (Steiner 1990, 142) remain missing.. Other targets had been revised or seemed debatable.. As occurs in any inspection of a new dictionary, this reviewer also found some defective definitions.. At the entry for.. a.. , the indefinite article, sense 2 is: [used with a to refer to a single group] :.. a lot of hooks; a few boys.. Used with 'a' does not belong here, but at senses of.. lot.. few.. A new entry in UWD,.. ebonics.. (which should be capitalized), is explained in a way that does not correspond to the evidence in Among the New Words (Glowka and Lester 1997, 298-99).. UWD has English as commonly spoken in the Southern U.. , esp.. by Blacks; Black English.. However, according to the citations in Among the New Words, the word refers only to Black English or what is also called African-American Vernacular English and Vernacular Black English.. The words Southern and esp.. should be deleted.. Mahomet.. is explained as the same as MOHAMMED, but that is not an entry.. Mohammedan.. is, but is explained only as Moslem.. One has to look up.. Moslem.. to find out that Mohammed was the founder of a religion.. At the close of his review of.. , Steiner calls for an extensive study to assess the effectiveness of examples versus definitions (1990, 146).. 1 would like to see assessments of the effectiveness of all methods of explaining meaning and use, singly and in combination.. No doubt there are individual differences among users as to which ones most help them.. UWD provides users with ready access to needed information about a wide range of words and phrases, in compact and affordable form.. With its special attention to collocations, it is an interesting and useful contribution to the resources for answering questions about today's English vocabulary.. Benson, Morton, Evelyn Benson, and Robert Ilson.. 1986.. The BBC Combinatory Dictionary of English: A Guide to Word Combinations.. Philadelphia and Amsterdam: John Benjamins.. Glowka, Wayne, and Brenda K.. Lester.. 1997.. Among the Near Words.. American Speech.. 72.. 3: 289-313.. Neufeldt, Victoria, and David B.. Guralnik, eds.. 1988.. 3d College Edition.. New York: Webster's New World.. Paikeday, Thomas M.. , ed.. 1982.. New York: Times Books.. _________.. 1989.. Review of.. Morton Benson, Evelyn Benson, and Robert Ilson.. American Speech 64.. 4: 354-61.. ed.. 1990.. Markham, Ontario: Penguin Books Canada; Mississauga, Ontario: Copp Clark Pittman.. Rooney, Kathy.. 1994.. , by Thomas M.. International Journal of Lexicography.. 7.. 3: 254-156.. Sinclair, John, ed.. 1987.. Collins-COBUILD English Language Dictionary.. London: Collins.. Steiner, Roger J.. Review of The Penguin Canadian Dictionary.. Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society, of North America.. 12: 139-46.. Go To Top Of Page.. References..

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  • Title:
    Descriptive info: TRADEMARK AFFIDAVITS.. SPATIALIST AS A BLEND OF SPATIAL ANALYST.. Testimonial Letter.. Report.. GOOD PIZZA WASHED DOWN.. WITH BAD LINGUISTICS.. UN-PETROLEUM JELLY.. NETFIRMS AFFIDAVIT.. PLEASE NOTE: Communications for all consultant work were by.. phone, fax and e-mail.. No personal aquaintance or meetings were necessary.. AN UNSOLICITED TESTIMONIAL.. (quoted with permission).. February 1, 1993.. From:.. Arthur M.. Szabo, B.. Comm.. , LL.. B.. Suite 400, 1111-11th Ave.. S.. W.. Calgary, AB, Canada T2R 0G5.. Phone: (403)229-1111.. To:.. Lexicographer Language Consultant.. 83 Sunny Meadow Blvd.. Brampton, ON, Canada L6R 1Z3.. Dear Sir,.. Re: Projections Mapping Group Inc.. Spatial Analyst - Trade-mark.. Thank you for your letter dated January 23, 1993, with enclosures.. I am now informed that the Examiner has made an administrative decision not to permit the registration of the.. proposed trade-mark Spatialist unless Bishop McKenzie can provide compelling reasons otherwise.. Having said the above, I must let you know how I feel about having worked with you on this file to date.. My contact with you has been relatively limited, however, you have made quite a distinct impression.. As you might suspect, in the course of my practice, I have had the occasion to deal with a number of experts in various fields of endeavor.. It is rarely that I come into contact with someone who through the written word conveys not only expertise and an ability to effectively convey that expertise but a genuine enthusiasm for his profession.. I suspect that these traits are a result of a combination of factors, not the least of which are the focus of your profession (to the extent of the use of words), your qualifications and your personality.. Unfortunately, often when I read expert reports, they are boring and some suggest that they were a chore to the writer to have taken the time and effort to prepare the document.. The opposite is true of your report.. I find your report, aside from its informative qualities, a pleasure to read, almost to the point of being entertaining.. I hope you take this latter remark as a compliment because it is meant as such.. Thank you for your continued assistance on this file.. I look forward to hearing from you and receiving your report.. Yours truly,.. ARTHUR M.. SZABO.. THE REPORT.. SPATIALIST.. AS.. A.. BLEND.. OF.. SPATIAL ANALYST.. by.. CONTENTS.. Introduction.. Page 3.. General principles.. Shortening of words.. 6.. Recipe for blending words.. 9.. 5.. Spatialist as a blend of Spatial Analyst.. 10.. Who owns a blended form?.. 12.. Blended look-alikes.. 14.. 8.. Is Spatial Analyst descriptive?.. 17.. INTRODUCTION.. I have studied classics, philosophy, English literature, and linguistics at the undergraduate and graduate levels full-time for about 10 years and earned the degrees of B.. A.. (Hons.. ), M.. , and L.. Ph.. (Licentiate in Philosophy).. I began my career in 1958 as a lecturer in English language and literature in the University of Madras, continuing in the profession in the University of Delhi.. Since 1964, when I settled in the Toronto area, I have been a full-time lexicographer of Canadian and American English dictionaries for schools and the general public, my last two works being.. (New York, 1982) and.. (Toronto, 1990).. I have also published a linguistic monograph,.. (New York Toronto, 1985), a Socratic-style debate by mail on the term native speaker with Professor Noam Chomsky (main contributor) and 40 other linguists, philosophers, psychologists, and lexicographers.. This book, including its Japanese translation (Tokyo, 1990), has been favourably reviewed by linguistic journals world-wide.. I have acted as a lexicographer/expert for legal firms specializing in trade-mark cases in the U.. and Canada.. I believe, therefore, that I am qualified to give the opinion set out below.. The opinion has been prepared at the request of Arthur M.. Szabo, Esq.. , acting on behalf of Projections Mapping Group Inc.. of Calgary who wish to register Spatial Analyst as their trade mark.. I understand that Spatial Analyst is a software product developed and marketed by Projections Mapping Group to be used in the mapping, GIS, and facilities management communities and incorporates technology such as polygon topology, spatial analysis, linear network modelling, spatial modelling, and arch-node topology.. Spatialist is a competing product sold by Kanotech Information Systems Ltd.. of Edmonton, Alberta.. Projections Mapping Group's use of Spatial Analyst predates Kanotech's use of Spatialist.. I have been asked whether the two trade marks are confusingly similar from the linguistic point of view and if so to prepare an analysis and comparison of the two trade marks in support of this position.. I wish to show that not only is Spatialist confusingly similar to Spatial Analyst, but that the former is an obviously shortened form of the latter and hence the property of the owners of Spatial Analyst by natural linguistic right.. GENERAL PRINCIPLES.. The acquisition of proprietary rights in a word is similar to the acquisition of real property by right of occupation of public land, as in staking out land claims in pioneer days.. The 26 letters of the English alphabet, the 44 vowel and consonant sounds of the language as generally spoken in Canada, and the hundreds of thousands of words of the English lexicon are all public property.. But when someone invents a new word using letters and sounds or puts together existing words in a distinctive way for a commercial purpose, the inventor acquires a piece of the language and a natural proprietary right to it.. Any user of a language may create his own words and put them in circulation.. In fact, that is how words initially enter the lexicon of a language.. Words have to be accepted by society to become common coin, but there is always an individual or group of people that first puts a word in circulation.. As in real property, one's rights in a trade mark are defined by certain boundaries.. However, whereas the boundaries of a piece of real property are fixed in terra firma, the boundaries of an intellectual property such as a trade mark are fluid because of the unstable nature of the medium, a medium that is subject to linguistic and dialectal variations and processes of linguistic change.. The trade mark Anacin, for example, is variously pronounced in different languages and dialects.. In Standard English, it is usually heard as (AN.. sin), with a stress or accent on the first syllable, the other two syllables being short and unstressed.. However, in some other languages the same trade mark is pronounced (uh.. NAH.. sin), with the second syllable lengthened and stressed.. Many languages do not even have stressed and unstressed syllables as in English and other Germanic languages.. In Chinese, Swahili, etc.. , for example, tone plays a leading part in the communication of meaning.. A dialectal variation of Anacin would be when the word is pronounced, as in certain parts of the English-speaking world, more like (UN.. sin) than (AN.. sin).. However, such variations would not affect the rights of the trade mark owner.. In regard to the written form, Anacin could conceivably be spelled Anasin.. However, as in its spoken forms, a misspelling or even a variant spelling of a trade mark, as Technicolour instead of Technicolor, would not affect the owner's rights in the word.. It would simply be confusingly similar to the original trade mark.. Linguistic change, which is a fact of life for all languages, occurs in pronunciations (phonetic change), in the written forms of words (morphologic and spelling changes), meaning (semantic change), vocabulary (lexical change), and even in grammar and usage.. SHORTENING OF WORDS.. Mechanisms of linguistic change are many, but one of the ways in which lexical change occurs is by a process simply called shortening.. Shortening arises from the natural and instinctive urge of living beings to control their environment with the least expenditure of time and resources, as in making a beeline for a destination.. It is the same urge that makes people take shortcuts through their own and other people's property instead of going around the perimeter.. Hence questions of right of way, trespassing, etc.. Shortening in language, which takes place first in pronunciation, happens in several ways:.. (a) Syncopation or syncope is the shortening of a word by dropping one or more syllables from the middle of its spoken form.. Thus we have:.. boatswain becoming bo's'n.. Cholmondeley becoming (CHUM.. lee), as pronounced.. (San) Francisco becoming Frisco.. never becoming ne'er.. Toronto becoming (TRON.. uh), as pronounced colloquially.. vegetable becoming (VEJ.. tuh.. bul), as pronounced.. Waskatenau (Alberta) becoming (wuh.. SET.. nah) in pronunciation.. (b) Clipping is the shortening of a polysyllabic word by dropping all but one or two syllables.. Thus.. we have:.. advertisement becoming ad.. Coca-Cola becoming Coke.. Diefenbaker becoming Dief.. Elizabeth becoming Liz.. examination becoming exam.. gentleman becoming gent.. influenza becoming flu.. omnibus becoming bus (from the original French).. Pepsi-Cola becoming Pepsi.. professor becoming prof.. Ronald becoming Ron.. (c) An acronym is a pronounceable word formed by joining the first letters of a string of words.. AmEx from American Express.. CAGIS from Cincinnati Area Geographic Information System.. Chicom from Chinese Communist.. CUSO from Canadian University Students Overseas.. cyborg from cybernetic organism.. FedEx  ...   we can see how close to its original the blend would look, besides being shorter and pithier.. (a) Trade Marks.. Pepsi-Cola blend to: Pepsola? (clipped Pepsi, of course, is better, but note similarity of blend to its original).. Pennsy Pinkie.. (rubber balls) - blend.. ?.. Pepperidge Farm.. (bakery goods).. - blend.. Phillips Pozidriv.. (screws, drivers).. Physicians Formula (cosmetics) - blend?.. Planned Parenthood.. (family planning).. Plastic Wood.. (cellulose filler).. Preparation H.. (for hemorroids).. Pudding Cup.. (snacks).. (b) Analyst compounds.. Analyst/Designer Toolkit.. (programming software).. - blended to:.. Analykit?.. (note similarity).. B-Analyst (3-D modelling analyst) - blend?.. Elias Baseball Analyst.. (journal name).. Food Analyst.. (computer software).. G-Analyst.. (car performance evaluator).. Image Analyst (image processing package) - blend.. Instant Analyst.. (Lotus 1-2-3 add-in).. Inventory Analyst.. (Lotus 1-2-3 product).. MacAnalyst Combo.. (a Macintosh case tool).. V-Analyst.. (virus detector).. Visible Analyst Workbench.. What-If Analyst.. (Lotus 1-2-3 utility).. (c) Spatial compounds.. The few trade marks there are of this kind (SPATIAL-DBMS, SPATIALWORKS, SPATIALDATA) may not need blending, but our point about similarity could be illustrated using generic phrases compounded of spatial.. Listed below are such compounds (also called collocations) in order of frequency of occurrence in the databases sampled.. (Frequency index is given in brackets).. spatial relation(ship) (19) ( Spatialation would be a good blend of spatial relation for purposes of a trade mark; but note similarity with original).. spatial distribution (13).. spatial arrangement (11).. spatial extent (10).. spatial magnitude (6).. spatial position (6).. spatial configuration (4).. spatial measurement (3).. spatial direction (3).. spatial quality (3).. spatial resolution (3).. spatial sense (3).. A relevant point perhaps worth recalling here is that in the non-commercial world, there is no great confusion caused by similarity of names.. If Antonia does not wish to be mistaken for a boy, she can use Toni instead of Tony.. Even Chris, Kay, Lee, Lou, Lynn, Pat, Ray, and Sam could distinguish themselves (as identical twins do) by dressing differently or sporting distinctive hairdos.. This kind of accommodation is not possible in the more competitive world of commerce.. In no way, shape, or form could Spatialist coexist with Spacialist, Spatialyst, Spyshulist, or any other blend of Spatial Analyst as the trade mark of a competing product.. All such variations of Spatialist would be confusingly similar to Spatial Analyst and would belong to the owners of Spatial Analyst just as misspellings, linguistic and dialectal variants, etc.. of a trade mark would belong to the owners of the original trade mark.. IS SPATIAL ANALYST DESCRIPTIVE?.. The solicitors for Kanotech Information Systems, in their letter of August 20, 1992, dispute that [Projections Mapping Group] has any proprietary right in the word 'spatial,' as the word itself is descriptive of the wares.. The first part of the contention seems pointless to me because in a compound phrase used as a trade mark, it is not either of the component words that is proprietary but the phrase as a whole or as a single unit.. There are hundreds of proprietary names which are open compounds like Spatial Analyst (as well as hyphenated and solidly written compounds) composed of non-proprietary or generic English words -- from American Girl (shoes) and Aunt Jemima (syrup) to Care Free (chewing gum), Clear Eyes (eyedrops), Cling Free (fabric softener), and Cool Whip (dessert topping) to White Horse (whisky) and Yankee Clipper (timepiece).. No proprietary rights are claimed by their owners in words like American, Girl, Aunt, etc.. This is true also of the three U.. trade marks cited, whether they are written Spatialworks, SpatialWorks, or Spatial Works, etc.. The same applies to Spatial Analyst, whether it is written Spatialanalyst, SpatialAnalyst, or however else.. As I have explained above (under GENERAL PRINCIPLES), the letters, sounds, words, and even the grammar of the language are all public property.. It is only when someone puts linguistic elements together in a distinctive way that he or she acquires proprietary rights in it.. Spatial Analyst, I believe, is such a trade mark.. However, counsel for Kanotech base their contention on the claim that spatial is merely descriptive of the wares it refers to.. This is an interesting question.. First of all, as already detailed in INTRODUCTION (above), the wares referred to cover a whole range of services provided by Projections Mapping Group.. One adjective could not be descriptive of a product with such a variety of applications.. At least, it is not as descriptive as an un-registrable Extra Dry may be descriptive of the qualities or attributes of a wine or Rock and Rye may be descriptive of the nature or character of a mixture of rock candy and rye whisky.. Secondly, the claim that Spatial Analyst is descriptive of what it stands for fails a simple linguistic test of descriptiveness.. A linguistic test of the descriptiveness of a word or phrase would be transparency of its meaning to the average educated user of the language (formerly called native speaker ) in reference to the character or qualities of the object referred to.. Now, as everyone knows, there are degrees of transparency and opacity, as illustrated by the old classification of diamonds as of the first water, second water, third water, etc.. In regard to trade marks, as the transparency of a word or phrase in relation to the character or qualities of the product it represents is perceived as more and more arguable, the meaning conveyed becomes more suggestive than descriptive.. At one end of this spectrum are such totally opaque words as Kodak.. Not even an expert in the English language would be able to guess what Kodak means or stands for unless he or she was familiar with the word; the word thus makes for a very distinctive trade mark, especially when one is told that Kodak is suggestive of the sound of clicking a camera.. Another distinctive trade mark, but one that is less opaque than Kodak is Xerox.. Expert users of English who are familiar with the many English words compounded of xero- and with its meaning dry in the original Greek would identify Xerox as referring to something dry.. As it happens, it refers to a dry photocopying process.. At the other end of the spectrum are such clearly transparent phrases as the following common collocations of spatial cited earlier under BLENDED LOOK-ALIKES:.. spatial relationship.. spatial distribution.. spatial arrangement.. spatial extent.. spatial magnitude.. spatial position.. [etc.. in order of their frequency of occurrence in the sample].. I think it is safe to assert that the meaning of each of the above phrases would be crystal clear to the average user of English who is familiar with spatial and the second element of each phrase.. (The different dictionary meanings of spatial in the above collocations is academic.. Again, it is the meaning of the whole phrase that matters).. But not even an expert in the English language would be able to tell at first sight what Spatial Analyst might mean.. This lexicographer had no clear idea of what it meant before studying the literature on the subject; it simply seemed to suggest something related to space and analysis.. Spatial analysis, on the other hand, is an accepted collocation of words and conveys more meaning than spatial analyst does.. The linguistic explanation for this difference in meaningfulness between the two phrases is that none of the four accepted meanings of spatial (as given in the Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, 1989, 20 vols.. , see copy of relevant page attached) fits spatial analyst.. An analyst having extension in space (definition 1) does not make sense.. An analyst that relates to space, not time (def.. 2) does not make sense either.. Nor does an analyst happening or taking place in space or caused or involved by space (def.. 3) have any meaning.. The same goes for an analyst perceptive of space (def.. 4, as in spatial ability, intelligence, sense which refers to faculties or senses that perceive space, not products or people).. On the other hand, spatial analysis can be explained by def.. 2; namely, analysis that is spatial; i.. e.. , that relates to space, not time, as in spatial extinction, segregation, separation, etc.. Spatial Analyst is thus merely suggestive and not descriptive.. It is clearly more opaque than transparent.. Although, because of the common generic words that the phrase is composed of, it may be less opaque than Xerox or Kodak, it cannot at all be said to be transparent.. Spatial Analyst, therefore, cannot be said to be descriptive of anything to the average educated user of English.. SUMMARY CONCLUSION.. As intellectual property, a trade mark is comparable to real property in regard to boundaries.. The blended form of a phrasal compound that exists as a trade mark is like a shortcut taken through someone else's territory.. Just as a shortcut, whoever may have discovered it, would belong to the owners of the property, so by natural linguistic right, a blend belongs to the owners of the original phrasal compound used as trade mark.. The resemblances between a blend and its original are too close to be ignored.. Spatialist, therefore, rightfully belongs to the owners of Spatial Analyst.. 3 February 1993.. Testimonal..

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  • Title:
    Descriptive info: The following report was prepared at the request of David A.. Fram, Esq.. , Barrister Solicitor, Toronto, to help defend a journalist threatened with a libel action based on his use of the word bilked in reference to a businessman allegedly not meeting his financial obligations.. BILKED.. INTRODUCTION: I have studied Classics, Philosophy, English literature, and Linguistics at the undergraduate and graduate levels full-time (in Indian universities and at Boston College and the University of Michigan) for about 10 years and earned the degrees of B.. (Hons), M.. I began my career in 1958 as a Lecturer (Asst.. Prof.. ) in English language and literature in the University of Madras, continuing in the profession in the University of Delhi.. (Toronto, 1990) and.. (Toronto and New York, 2000).. I have also published a linguistic monograph,.. (Toronto and New York, 1985), a debate by mail with Professor Noam Chomsky (main contributor) and 40 other linguists, philosophers, psychologists, and lexicographers.. This book, including its Japanese translation (Tokyo, 1990), has been favourably reviewed by journals world-wide.. Last year I was invited to contribute my biography to.. The Directory of American Scholars.. (11th Edition), an honour reserved for eminent academics.. I wish to show that bilked as used in the article in question ( Lap of Luxury,.. Masthead.. , Jan.. 2003, p.. 5) in reference to Harold Zadeh is not an imputation of fraud but merely descriptive of his behaviour, usually called deadbeat, in allegedly not meeting his financial obligations.. I am, of course, not making any judgements as to the facts of the threatened libel action, but merely studying the use of the word in the context provided by the writer of the offending article.. This linguistic study is based on lexicographical evidence from books and periodicals, chiefly evidence of current English usage.. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF BILKED : The transitive verb bilk dates back to 1651 (.. Oxf.. Eng.. Dict.. , Second Edn.. , 1992) and originally meant to balk or spoil any one's score in the game of cribbage.. Oxford's.. definition #3, to cheat, defraud; to evade payment of (a debt), seems to have quickly developed from the original meaning, as in Locke's 1672 use: A man that had bilked one of the most considerable men of the place.. This brings us to the usage at issue.. MODERN SENSE: In linguistics and lexicography, we study meaning at roughly three levels (or registers) of usage: (a) formal, as in a Throne Speech; (b) informal (written) or colloquial (spoken), as in the mass media; (c) slang, as in everyday uninhibited speech and writing.. This three-fold distinction is not very clear-cut.. Many desk dictionaries (as.. , 1998) conveniently label bilk as Informal.. Others  ...   of promises that a government may or may not be able to keep.. The idea is to bilk the public, as anyone may say without fear of libel because it is such a widely accepted truth.. If the writer had said defrauded instead of bilked, that might have sounded like a serious, willful, and formal indictment.. (b) I believe, therefore, the writer of the article, in using the word bilked, was expressing himself artlessly, telling what he believed to be the truth, exactly as he saw it.. There is hardly any sarcastic use of words in the article, no tongue-in-cheek references.. The writer is merely cataloguing in a dry, descriptive, matter-of-fact manner the dozen or so instances of Zadeh's alleged failure to meet his obligations.. It is balanced and fair reporting.. (c) People in certain professions and occupations tend to be attacked for their alleged lack of honesty and integrity more than others, politicians for example.. A few days back, our prime minister The Right Hon.. Jean Chrétien was referred to in Canada's national newspaper as a veteran leader as.. wily.. as Mr.. Chrétien.. Globe Mail.. editorial, May 10, 2003, p.. A22).. As everyone knows, wily is used of foxes, coyotes, ethnic types the writer does not like, Saddam Hussein, Ronald Reagan, and other personae non gratae.. Is our prime minister likely to sue the.. for defamation of character? I doubt it because, for a prime minister, to be called a wily politician comes with the territory.. Members of the oldest profession have been similarly vilified because, although they perform a much-needed service to mankind, their work is frowned upon by society.. But is a lady of the evening going to sue someone who publicly refers to her by any of the hundreds of synonyms for prostitute from A to Z?.. Lawyers have been similarly treated for ages.. But is the lawyer referred to in 4(a) likely to consider himself slandered? I doubt it.. If the story went that the lawyer habitually bilked his clients so that his livelihood seemed threatened by the exposé, there might have been cause for action.. The point here is that our publisher-entrepreneur, regardless of the profession he is in, who has a dozen actions for alleged fraud possible or pending, clearly falls into a class or group that may be called the deadbeat club.. The publicity he is receiving may be said to come with the territory.. Legal issues apart, on the linguistic front, I have no hesitation in saying that the offending quotation, studied in its full context, merely seems to imply that Mr.. Zadeh, playing against 12 opponents, has lost a game like cribbage in fair play.. 17 May 2003..

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  • Title:
    Descriptive info: ARTICLES.. O Corpora!.. Plagiarism, Hardcore and Softcore.. Vagina vs.. Vulva..

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  • Title: Title Page of User Guide
    Descriptive info: | User Guide.. Title Page.. Preface.. Abbreviations.. The.. USER'S.. WEBSTER.. Dictionary.. A unique dictionary for home, school, and office.. that defines words in their typical contexts.. and provides examples of idiomatic usage.. Chief Editor.. ,.. , etc.. LEXICOGRAPHY, INC.. Toronto New York.. Copyright 2002, Thomas M.. 2455 Yarmouth Cres.. Oakville, Ontario, Canada L6L 2M9.. Telephone: (905)790-7076; Fax: (905)790-9168; E-mail: thomaspaikeday@sprint.. ca.. All Rights Reserved.. No part of this book may be reproduced  ...   without permission in writing from the publisher, except by reviewers who may quote brief passages in their reviews.. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER: 98-67088.. CANADIAN CATALOGUING IN PUBLICATION DATA Main entry under title:.. Webster: a unique dictionary for home, school, and office that defines words in their typical contexts and provides examples of idiomatic usage.. ISBN 0-920865-03-8 (pbk.. ) ISBN 0-920865-02-X (bound).. English language B Dictionaries.. I.. PE1628.. U83 1998 423 C98-932440-8..

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  • Title: Lexicography Inc. - Trademark Affidavits:: Pizza, Pizza
    Descriptive info: WITH BAD LINGUISTICS.. PLEASE NOTE: Communicatiions for all consultant work were by.. PIZZA PIZZA LTD.. REGISTRAR OF TRADE MARKS.. Federal Court, Trial Division, Rouleau J.. , September 23, 1982.. Held, per Rouleau J.. , the appeal is allowed.. The expression pizza pizza is not a linguistic construction that is a part of normally acceptable spoken or written English.. Repetition of a word has become well-established, accepted and understood as indicating trade names or trade marks of commercial enterprises.. APPEAL from a refusal of the Registrar of Trade Marks to register the mark PIZZA PIZZA, allowed.. The above excerpt is from the Canadian Patent Reporter, 67 C.. P.. R.. (2d), pages 202 - 204.. I find the expert testimony on which the decision in the PIZZA PIZZA case was apparently based somewhat shocking because the testimony can be shown to be quite wrong.. Here is what the expert witness for Pizza Pizza Ltd.. (a professor of linguistics) testified, as quoted in the judgment cited above:.. PIZZA PIZZA is a phrase consisting of a single word repeated once.. In linguistics, repetition of a word or syllable is known as reduplication or iteration.. The second time the word appears it may be identical or it may differ slightly from the first occurrence.. While one can find a fairly large number of instances of reduplication in English,.. only a very small number of instances involve exact repetition as in PIZZA PIZZA.. More generally in English there is modification on the second occurrence.. PIZZA PIZZA does not have any assignable meaning based on the limited rules of reduplication in English as described in the recognized published grammatical literature.. Reference texts on English grammar do not list as grammatical any constructions like PIZZA PIZZA.. I wish to show that at least the two statements I have emphasized above are wrong.. The others are of very dubious academic merit.. The number of instances involving exact repetition as in PIZZA PIZZA is actually legion.. Exact repetition of syllables (reduplication) is in the nature of all human languages.. This is true of all stages of language use from the cradle to the grave.. Besides reduplication of grammatical elements as in Sanskrit and Latin verb forms, kinship terms such as mother and father that an infant first learns to utter are repetitions of syllables starting with bilabial consonants.. Bilabials are the easiest sounds to make after vowels.. Thus we have mama, papa, etc.. in English and other languages.. Other words originating in children's speech are boo-boo, pee-pee, etc.. Choo-choo, dada, gah-gah, goo-goo, nana, ta-ta, etc.. are examples of words formed of repeated syllables using consonants ranging from alveolar to velar.. (See Some Semantic Functions of Reduplication in Various Languages by Harold Key, Anthropological Linguistics, Vol.. 7, No.. 3, pp.. 88-102).. Besides repetition of syllables, repetition of words also seems common in languages from Japanese to Standard English.. Professor (emeritus) Frederic G.. Cassidy of the University of Wisconsin is an internationally recognized linguist, dialectologist, and lexicographer.. He is currently Chief Editor of the mammoth project called Dictionary of American Regional English or DARE (ongoing since 1965 with the involvement of hundreds of linguists, field-workers, and editors) under the auspices of the American Dialect Society.. Volume II (D - H) was published by Harvard University Press last year.. Says Cassidy in his well-known book Jamaica Talk (London, 1961): In Standard English one finds three kinds of iteratives: the simple ones like hush-hush.. ; those with vowel gradation like ding-dong.. ; and the rhyming ones like handy-dandy (Ch.. IV, p.. 69).. Most English grammars will attest to this fact of language.. The following are simple iteratives like hush-hush that readily come to mind, some of them being as old as the English language: Bang Bang; bye-bye; Dear, Dear; goody-goody; Hear, Hear; Mary, Mary; Mirror, mirror; pooh-pooh; so-so; Well, well; win-win.. Any user of English should be able to come up with scores of such formations.. Many of them may be said to supply a vocative case which a modern analytical language such as English lacks but is  ...   have two assignable meanings.. The more obvious meaning of the iterative form PIZZA PIZZA is exactly as in Extra, Extra! and other cries, namely, Pizza for sale!.. A second meaning that has recently come into use in North American English is the meaning resulting from the use of iteration as an intensifier for emphasis.. The structure PIZZA PIZZA can mean pizza par excellence or the real pizza.. This meaning will come through if, instead of saying each pizza of PIZZA PIZZA in a rising-falling tone, the first pizza is stressed and the second one left unstressed, as in the following sentence:.. This is not your run-of-the-mill pizza, but pizza pizza, just delivered by Pizza Hut.. In this sentence, PIZZA PIZZA is pronounced (PEET.. suh.. peet.. suh), not (PEET.. PEET.. suh) as in the previous utterance.. I was alerted to this meaning by Fred Cassidy himself during a recent phone conversation.. I later discovered Doubles and Modifiers in English, Nancy L.. Dray's M.. thesis, Dept.. of Linguistics, University of Chicago, 1987, which deals exhaustively with this subject.. Asked whether he believes this new meaning is older than 1982, Prof.. Cassidy (who is 85) wrote: 'Yes, I have been aware of the use of iteration for emphasis for more than 10 years, in such sentences (from memory) as: Well, I'm working, but it's temporary, not a JOB job.. Will they be serving food? Well, not FOOD food, just snacks.. That wasn't a JOKE joke, just a groaner.. The latter two were furnished by members of the DARE staff, who declare it has been in use from many years ago.. '.. Harold Key's article and Nancy Dray's thesis (both cited above) take the study of this iterative phenomenon well back into the 1960s.. Usages such as PIZZA PIZZA in the new meaning are thus generic to the English language as spoken in North America.. Any word in the English dictionary from A to Z can be used in this way to emphasize the character or quality of the object in question.. One might say, for example, The South African anteater is not the aardvark aardvark or Equus quagga, not Equus zebra, is the zebra zebra.. Grammatically, in such repetitions, the first word functions as a modifier; the first pizza modifies the second.. Together, the two words constitute a noun phrase.. In the following examples, busy, easy, and real function as adverbial intensifiers with the meaning very : 'Zombie Bandit' busy, busy man (heading to AP story from Chicago in Toronto Globe Mail, 25 Feb.. 1992, p.. A13); an easy easy apricot trifle (Marg Fraser in the Toronto Sun, 26 Dec.. 210); He made a real real mistake, that's how he lost the gold medal (heard on TV).. Although the above usage is of recent origin, it may be said to be based on a much older usage in which intensifiers such as very, much, and far are repeated for emphasis, as in very very good, much much.. more careful, far, far.. more carefully, and so so.. much better.. (See A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language by Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik, London, 1985).. It is therefore not correct to say that PIZZA PIZZA is a linguistic construction that is not part of normally acceptable spoken or written English or that it is a coined phrase capable of referring distinctively to the pizza made by one company.. PIZZA PIZZA is not more distinctive or original than any catchy phrase (e.. a kinder gentler society ) that is based on common English vocabulary and grammar.. As shown above, PIZZA PIZZA is a linguistic construction of a purely descriptive kind with two clearly distinguishable meanings that are in common use.. The first meaning has been part of standard spoken and written English since the beginnings of the language and seems to be characteristic of all human languages.. The second meaning is based on a relatively new North American usage, but older than 1982, as shown by the linguistic literature on the subject.. 29 June 1992..

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  • Title: Lexicography Inc. - Trademark Affidavits:: Un-Petroleum Jelly
    Descriptive info: SPATIALIST AS A BLEND OF SPATIAL ANALYST.. INTRODUCTION [as in the Spatialist affidavit].. This opinion has been prepared at the request of a trademark lawyer with McCarthy Tetrault, Toronto, acting on behalf of a company opposing another company's application to register UN-PETROLEUM JELLY.. I have been asked whether UN-PETROLEUM JELLY is descriptive of the wares in association with which it is to be used.. I have made a lexicographical study of un- in the sense in which it is prefixed to petroleum jelly, and I wish to show that:.. (1) un-, prefixed to a noun, as in the trade mark in question is a generic feature of current English; (2) UN-PETROLEUM JELLY is clearly descriptive of the character and qualities of the product it refers to.. LEXICOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS.. Lexicography is based primarily on evidence of usage as observed in well-edited books, journals, and other media.. Lexicographers constantly monitor such sources for new words and meanings entering the word stock of the language.. It is estimated that over five hundred neologisms (including phrasal compounds, idioms, prefixes, suffixes, and combining forms such as dial-a- and -athon) become part of the English vocabulary each year.. When there is sufficient evidence of a new word or meaning, it qualifies for entry in dictionaries.. Language being a continually changing entity, no published dictionary, including the great Oxford English Dictionary or OED (Second Edition, 1989, 20 vols.. ), can be quite up to date.. Even the definitions of the older words are sometimes challenged by experts on the basis of new evidence or a better analysis and interpretation of the old evidence.. A case in point is What makes people peruse? (T.. M.. Paikeday, English Today, Cambridge University Press, July 1992, pp.. 33 - 38) which seeks to show that the dictionaries have missed the current meaning of peruse.. A paper by this lexicographer ( Vagina v.. vulva ) to be published soon[Please see Female Trouble.. Copy Editor.. Oct - Nov.. 1998.. pp.. 6] will show that American and British dictionaries (including the mother of all English dictionaries) have no clear notion of the female genitals.. III.. THE ORIGIN AND DERIVATION OF UN-.. The prefix un- expressing negation or contradiction, as in untrue and uncalled-for, has roots going back to a primitive Indo-European ne meaning not.. Cognates exist in classical languages such as Sanskrit and Greek, in both of which it is used as a- or an-, as in the Greek átomos (atom) meaning not divisible.. This is not to be confused with another un-, expressing reversal or deprivation, originating in Indo-European ant- (meaning front, forehead ), cognate with Greek anti (meaning against ).. English unfasten, unlace, etc.. in which un- is prefixed to verbs are of this second group.. The un- of un-petroleum jelly is the first of the two prefixes, entered in the major dictionaries as un-.. This un- is normally prefixed to adjectives, participles, and to nouns and adverbs derived from them.. Examples of un- + derived nouns are unclarity, unfulfilment, and unhappiness.. Examples of un- words in which the noun is not derived from an adjective or participle are unbalance, unbelief, unconcern, undeath, undress, unease, unquiet, unreason, unrepose, unrest, and untruth.. The OED makes the following observation about this kind of word-formation: From the beginning such nouns have been almost entirely restricted to those of an abstract nature [italics mine] so that forms with suffixes are numerous.. (OED, un-.. , definition 12a).. IV.. THE NEW MEANING OF UN- + NOUN WORDS.. In un-petroleum jelly, the phrasal compound to which un- is prefixed is neither a derivative in regard to formation nor is it abstract in meaning.. We will therefore consider only non-derivative un- nouns (simple and compound) that have concrete referents.. Concrete is used of nouns in the wider sense of all substantives not abstract, i.. all those denoting 'things' as distinguished from qualities, states, and actions.. crossing, verbal noun, i.. abstract noun of action, concretely, a crossing in a street, on a railway, etc.. (OED, concrete, adj.. def.. 4a).. Things referred to as concrete need not be material or tangible, they only have to exist in reality, as distinguished from existing in the mind.. In the context of trade marks, all goods and services are concrete; otherwise they could not be bought and sold.. We will now examine a few citations given in the OED for such un- + concrete nouns to see if there is more to it than the merely negative or contradictory meaning of un- + noun.. (Keywords have been boldfaced).. The English noses in their shapes and unshapes.. (c.. 1843: Carlyle, Hist.. Sk.. Jas.. I Chas.. I (1898), 269) [Though shape is an abstract noun, unshape is used here in a concrete sense; see OED, shape, def.. 14].. Here I suddenly arrested myself, for my unaddress stared me in the face.. (1853: E.. Sheppard, Charles Auchester, II.. 211).. In this un-country there was blue sky and light, consent and no sin.. (1964: W.. Golding, Spire, ix.. 178).. Reading experts always need tricky new gimmicks to put into their unbooks.. (1982: Underground Grammarian, Nov.. 5).. As you can see from the dates of the citations, the un- + concrete noun seems to be a relatively new development in English.. The OED has no earlier citations than the 1843 one from Carlyle.. As the OED editors have observed and the dictionary listings show, from the beginnings of the English language, un- words such as Old English unfrith ( un-peace or dissension ) and Middle English unbihoof ( un-benefit or disadvantage ) are all of an abstract nature.. Strictly speaking, in  ...   last year, the Navy leaned heavily on its own $4 million technical investigation.. But last week, the Navy's findings were 'eviscerated,' to use the word of Georgia Democrat Sam Nunn, chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, by a congressionally ordered review of the Navy's work.. Where the Navy had found 'foreign material' in the Iowa's gun, indicating that Hartwig had used a chemical detonator to blow up the gunpowder in Turret 2, tests by the federal government's Sandia National Laboratory found only chemicals from gun lubricant -- and seawater.. Whereas the Navy said the unpowder [sic] could not go off accidentally, Sandia weighted a stack of gunpowder bags and dropped it 3 feet to a deck.. On the 18th try, the powder ignited.. ( An honorable if tragic discharge, U.. News World Report, June 4, 1990, p.. 13).. 12.. UN-READER: The assistant professor of English at the Faculty of Educati on, University of Toronto, also points out that there is no such creature as an adolescent non-reader.. 'Un-readers, yes,' he said.. 'Non-readers, nonsense.. Unless there is a physical problem, but this is usually evident.. In the area of reading, more than in any other part of his education, the adolescent slow learner is a victim.. ' (The Globe Mail, 17 Oct.. 1974, p.. W-11).. 13.. UN-VACATION: I recently discovered a new type of vacation.. It is inexpensive, easily arranged, and does not involve the hassles and inconveniences of most trips.. It may indeed be the ultimate vacation.. The morning of departure was rainy and cold.. I sat drinking a cup of tea, enjoying the warmth and cleanliness of my apartment.. I thought, How would it be to stay here for a week, 'on vacation'?.. For the next six days I stayed home on vacation.. I began a systematic reading of the 325 volumes of Rudolf Steiner's collected works -- and got seven pages into volume 1.. I slept a great deal, going to bed and getting up whenever I felt like it without regard for the time of day.. I felt like I was catching up on a sleep deficit begun twenty years ago in college.. I didn't feel bored or lonely, though when the time came for me to reenter the world I was ready to.. And my friends commented on how rested and well I looked.. ( The un-vacation, East West, June, 1990, p.. 96).. It is needless to add that the above citations attest to the popular acceptance of the un- + concrete-noun formation.. Its meaning is so transparent to the average educated user of the language that the professor of English felt it unnecessary to explain what he meant by un-reader.. But he distinguishes the word from non-reader and goes on to say that un-readers are just slow learners.. It is the same case with the editor of East West who felt confident about using un-vacation in the heading of the article, although the author himself does not seem to have used the word.. V.. THE GENERIC DESCRIPTIVE NATURE OF UN-.. The transparency of a linguistic formation to the average educated user of the language (formerly called native speaker ) is a good test of its genericness.. As the evidence presented above shows, everyone knows what un- in the new sense means and therefore anyone may prefix un- to the name of anything in existence to denote something that is different from what the unprefixed word means.. This must apply to the entire English vocabulary from aardvark to zebra.. Thus if one hears of an un-aardvark, the idea of some aardvark that is not your typical anteater comes to mind, probably an aardvark which, having acquired a taste for better things, turns up its snout at ants; the context would give the complete meaning.. And if one hears of an un-zebra, one would think of a zebra that is different from the ordinary kind, as a zebra sporting a checked coat instead of a striped one.. This is descriptiveness pure and simple, as cold is descriptive of ice and bookshop is descriptive of a shop that sells books, although, if the difference between something and un-something only referred to some accidental characteristic of the thing in question, the un- + noun word might not have been so clearly descriptive.. That is why I believe it would be un-English to refer to a freak of nature such as a double-headed zebra or one that does not eat grass as un-zebra because the essence of zebraness is not in the zebra's habits or habitat but its being striped.. The same applies to the ant-eating nature of the aardvark.. The difference made by the prefix un-, therefore, is an essential difference, not an accidental one, and the un- + concrete noun becomes clearly descriptive.. The perfect logical description of any object is by genus and.. differentia specifica,.. as when man is described as rational animal, the genus word being animal and rationality the specific difference that distinguishes the human being from other animals.. Or when a rose is identified as Rosa odorata (tea rose), which is genus Rosa, species odorata.. An un-tea rose would be a tea rose that does not have its typical spicy fragrance.. The name UN-PETROLEUM JELLY, therefore, is clearly descriptive of what it stands for.. To the average educated user of English, it means an ointment or salve like petroleum jelly but with the essential difference that it contains something other than real petroleum jelly.. The same goes for any un-thing, whether it is UN-COFFEE, UNCOLA, UN-JEAN, UN-JUNKFOOD, UN-KETCHUP, UN-SCREW, UN-SOAP, or UN-UMBRELLA.. 1 February 1993..

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  • Title: Lexicography - Articles: O Corpora!
    Descriptive info: From LEXICOGRAPHICA, International Annual of Lexicography, Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen, August 1992, pp.. 307-317.. O CORPORA!.. ABSTRACT: This article seeks to show that, for any kind of lexicographical work, having a corpus of texts is as important as having a well-developed body on which to base a study of its anatomy.. A special-purpose dictionary and standard general-purpose North American dictionaries are discussed as examples of entries, definitions, and illustrative material that could have benefited from a database capable of supplying a minimal 20 million citations.. The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English, an admirable work, has been the subject of many commendatory articles since its publication in 1986.. It seems only fair that we take a look here at how the BBI would have been a better work if it had been based on a corpus or database of contemporary English.. For this purpose, we will compare random samples such as the first and last half-dozen entries of the BBI with a more complete treatment of the same using a CD-ROM database of about 20 million words of edited North American English of the mid-1980's -- DBase85 for short.. Such a check, especially of words that have newly come into the language, should also throw light on the deficiencies of dictionaries such as Webster's New World Dictionary (Third College Edition, 1988) which was compiled using a database of fewer than a million citations of the manual kind.. SPECIAL-PURPOSE DICTIONARY.. Here are the first six entries of the BBI in their entirety:.. aback adv.. taken ~ (I was taken ~) ('I was startled').. abacus n.. to operate, use an ~.. abandon I n.. (D; tr.. ) reckless, wild ~.. abandon II v.. ) to ~ to (they ~ed us to our fate).. abbreviate v.. ) to ~ to (Esquire can be ~d to Esq.. ABC n.. as easy, simple as ~.. If we consider high-frequency words and phrases in DBase85, many relatively more significant collocations than are entered in the BBI have been missed, under the following headwords: A, aback, abandon n.. , abandon v.. , abandoned adj.. , abandonment, abase, abashed, abate, abatement, abbreviate, abbreviation, and ABC.. For comparison purposes, however, we will deal with only entries corresponding to those in the BBI.. In the draft entries given below, brief definitions in roman precede the collocations in italics; as in the BBI, definitions are kept to a minimum.. For contrastive effect, the collocations of aback are presented in sentences with minimal differences of meaning and structure.. A particular meaning is given in parentheses (as under ABC) when there is a significant departure from the main definition.. No attempt is made to pigeonhole the collocations into grammatical and lexical categories beyond the traditional parts of speech, pigeonholes being considered less important than what is put into them.. : taken aback startled: I was taken ~; I was taken ~ by the announcement; I was taken ~ when I heard the announcement; I was taken ~ to hear that all the students had failed the test; I was taken ~ at how many students had failed the test; [rarely] The announcement took me ~.. [abacus is not one of our entries.. Collocations of the type operate, use an abacus are considered free combinations.. ].. abandon n.. carefree manner: She danced, played, sang with ~; to spend money with gay, gleeful, joyous, merry, mindless, wild ~; She partied with such ~ that she missed the flight home.. abandon v.. give up or desert: The captain ordered his men to ~ ship; They ~ed it to its fate; He ~ed his naval career for one in the army; to ~ oneself to despair, drinking, grief, pleasure.. shorten: Professor is ~d to Prof.. ; Professor is used in ~d form as Prof.. ; an ~d version of the story; to ~ a career, program, schedule, term of office, visit.. the alphabet: as easy, simple as ~; to teach a child her ~s; the ~s (= basics) of using a word processor.. Frequency counts from DBase85 could be produced to justify inclusion of each of the entries and collocations above.. However, let us be content with the counts for the five collocations of the first entry aback.. These are listed above in a logical order based on meaning.. The frequency order, however, is different.. The most frequent structure aback + by-clause occurs 27 times in DBase85, followed by aback + when (8), aback ending a clause or sentence (4), aback + to (3), aback + at (2), and aback used in the active voice (1).. Here is corroborating evidence from a section of The Los Angeles Times database comparable in size to DBase85: aback + by-clause (41 times); aback + when (4), aback ending a clause or sentence (3), aback + to (1), aback + at (1), and aback used in the active voice (3).. Now, here are the last six entries of the BBI:.. zodiac n.. the signs of the ~.. zone I n.. to establish, set up a ~ 2.. a climatic; frigid; temperate; time; torrid ~ 3.. a buffer; combat; communications; danger; demilitarized; drop; neutral; no-parking; no-passing; occupation; postal; safety; school; security; towaway; war ~ 4.. an erogenous ~ (of the body).. zone II v.. (d; tr.. ) to ~ as (they ~d the area as residential).. zoning n.. exclusionary ~.. zoo n.. at, in a ~ (she works at the ~; wild animals are well cared for in our ~).. zoom in v.. (d; intr.. ) to ~ on (the camera ~ed in on the podium).. A collocational dictionary based on a good database would include also entries such as zombie, zonk, and zoological.. In fairness to the BBI, however, we will confine our comparison to the six entries:.. a diagram of astrological signs: the 12 signs of the ~; Money-making is not in my ~; I'm a Libra, what's her ~ sign? She shares the same ~ sign as Marilyn Monroe.. zone n.. a special area or region: a buffer ~ separating two warring countries; a combat ~; a downtown commercial ~; a danger ~; the demilitarized ~ between two warring nations; the end ~ (behind either goal line in North American football); a 12-mile coastal fishing ~; the mouth, the behind, and such erogenous ~s of the body; Peace-loving nations wish to declare their countries nuclear-free ~s; a military occupation ~; a postal, residential, towaway ~; Tokyo and Seoul are in the same time ~, nine hours ahead of London; the Torrid, Temperate, and Frigid geographic ~s of the earth; in the twilight ~ (= grey area or borderline) of morality; a war ~.. form or divide into zones: A city is ~d into commercial, residential, and industrial districts; land ~d (as) agricultural; land ~d for agricultural use; agriculturally ~d land.. --zoning adj.. : ~ approval; a ~ bylaw, change, classification, permit, restriction, requirement, violation.. 1 a place where wild animals are kept for display: a children's petting ~; Bears should be kept in a ~; A fox at the ~ had rabies; The animal died in the Bronx ~.. 2 a crowded or noisy place: The festival was like a ~; Large cities are human ~s; Our parliament sometimes becomes a political ~.. zoom v.. 1 move with a buzz or whoosh: The birds ~ed toward the plaza; The Mirage jet ~ed up and out of sight.. 2 move upward like zooming: Her tennis ranking has ~ed from 100 to 10 in a year; Gas prices ~ed after the oil embargo; The economy didn't ~ during the war.. 3 focus using a lens that gives quick close-ups: a TV picture that ~s from an entire football field to the helmet of one of the players; The camera ~ed in on the star of the show.. --adj.. : A ~ lens or zoomer is a photographic device for taking quick close-up shots without having to adjust the focus; There is a ~ telescope at the top of the tower.. --interj.. : Zoom! She was an instant celebrity.. The style of the above presentation may not exactly suit the BBI's scheme of things.. But the question is, how best to serve the needs of the users of the dictionary.. Do they need distinctions such as the BBI's seven types of lexical collocations? Are these valid at all when examined linguistically or logically? If our collocational dictionary (like any dictionary, by definition) is aimed at users (and we should include not only foreigners, but the less educated natives such as freshmen) who are unsure of which words collocate with an entry word or what prepositions and other particles may be used with it, is it not better to give a more or less complete rundown of the collocations based on frequency of occurrence in a database and without the encumbrances of a theoretical framework of demonstrably dubious value? Even if you are preparing a dictionary of limited size, if you do not have a corpus on which to base it, how are you going to select the most typical or frequent collocations for listing?.. Besides serving as a guide to frequency of occurrence, a good database can also help a lexicographer avoid errors.. Take the BBI's mistrust, for example:.. mistrust n.. to arouse ~ 2.. deep, profound ~ 3.. ~ towards.. DBase85 shows that besides arousing mistrust, one can also create, dispel, eliminate, reduce, remove, and sow mistrust.. And mistrust can not only be deep and profound, but also great, growing, mutual, and widespread.. There is also an atmosphere, current, feeling, legacy, sense of mistrust.. Mistrust extends to mistrust and fear, mistrust and hostility, and suspicion and mistrust.. Finally, there is mistrust among, between, by people, and mistrust in, of, and over a person or thing.. However, according to DBase85, there is hardly any mistrust towards anyone, the only No.. 3 collocation that the BBI has recorded.. Here are the frequencies: mistrust of (16), between (9), in (2), and among, by, and over one each.. Here is the corresponding evidence from The Los Angeles Times of the same period as cited above under aback: mistrust of (16), between (5), in (1), and among, by, and toward one each.. Note the supplanting of over by toward in the last instance.. Some vindication of the BBI!.. The almost strict correspondence in regard to collocations between North American English edited in Los Angeles and in Toronto is almost uncanny.. Lexicography seems to achieve the condition of an exact science in this particular, like saying that sugar is composed of 12 parts of carbon, 22 parts of hydrogen and 11 parts of oxygen and mixed in with pollutants like mistrust towards.. GENERAL-PURPOSE DICTIONARIES.. Turning now to English dictionaries for general use, here are a dozen new words and expressions of the mid-1980's which newly revised works such as The Third Barnhart Dictionary of New English (1990), Webster's New World Dictionary (1988), and The Random House Dictionary (Unabridged, 1987) have missed.. These entries should also have been included in the updated editions of the other major American dictionaries, namely, Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1990 update) and The American Heritage Dictionary (1985 update).. The Random House Webster's College Dictionary (1991) has entered date rape but not the others.. The following selection of entries is based on frequency of occurrence in DBase85 and in other databases such as Mead Data Central's Nexis, The Los Angeles Times on CD-ROM, the Toronto Globe Mail and its online version, Info Globe, the Dialog database, etc..  ...   of the cut-and-dried variety, as may be stored in a card file, but citations that come up on demand like fish popping up from the ocean when the fisher thinks of his favourite variety of fish and snaps his fingers.. Using Boolean operators, you would type in a command like one-alarm or two-alarm or three-alarm or four-alarm but not fire or fires or blaze or blazes.. A citation that responded to this command might read: You need a stomach of steel to hold down a three-alarm [meaning very hot] Indian curry.. The dozen entries cited above are just the tip of the iceberg.. Out there in the vast ocean of billions of words available on tap as full-text databases lurk hundreds of words and phrases in common use waiting to be entered in dictionaries, as in expressions from The Age of Aquarius it isn't to extra virgin olive oil.. Incidentally, a CD-ROM-based system such as DBase85 offers the word-lover who browses in it daily opportunities for serendipity, one way of discovering new words, whereas browsing in your butterfly collection on 3 x 5 or 4 x 6 cards is like browsing through a morgue.. You don't make discoveries but only identify corpses.. Word-hunters' periodicals and projects such as The Barnhart Dictionary Companion and Among the New Words of American Speech that now specialize in what, in my view, are novelty items have to be supplemented by publications that supply fresh bread-and-butter words and expressions which, in fact, are older in the language and enjoy greater currency in everyday English but unfortunately are not to be found in our dictionaries.. N O T E S.. I wish to express my sincere thanks to my colleague Sol Steinmetz, Executive Editor of the Random House Dictionaries, and professors Igor Mel'cuk of the University of Montreal, Morton Benson of the University of Pennsylvania, and Dr.. Robert Ilson of University College, London, for offering many useful comments that have helped me much in preparing the final manuscript.. This writer was generous with his own meed of praise in a most exhaustive review article in American Speech, vol.. 64, no.. 4 (Winter 1989), and in his Acknowledgments to The Penguin Canadian Dictionary, Toronto, 1990.. Morton Benson (private communication) is quick to point out that the primacy of examples made up by compilers still stands unchallenged.. I agree with him on this.. Databases should not be quoted as if they were the word of God.. Quotations from published texts are often too wordy for lexicographical purposes.. Unless one is compiling a dictionary or vocabulary of the language of a particular text or person such as the Bible or Shakespeare, quotations should be avoided.. In dictionaries of current English, it is more economical and efficient to fashion our own illustrative phrases and sentences in succinct form based on the data on hand.. DBase85 is an inhouse term (not a trade name) used by the author and is no cousin of dBase, Dbase, DBase, etc.. which are trademarks of commercial software.. DBase85 is a conglomerate of manual files dating from the sixties and assorted electronic files developed since the early days of the microelectronic revolution, with Info Globe on CD-ROM as its main component.. The CD-ROM Info Globe, a world's first when published in Toronto by The Globe Mail, Canada's National Newspaper, in 1986, is no more commercially available; it also requires a special interface card for making use of it.. This author finds it valuable as a good representation of mid-1980's North American vocabulary.. The word crack (cocaine), for example, which made its appearance in 1986, occurs as rock in several places in Info Globe; e.. : Once cocaine was relatively hard, and always dangerous, to obtain.. Today, thanks to a new institution known as 'Rock House,' it is as easy as stopping at a local supermarket.. A rock is a fingernail-sized chunk of purified, uncut cocaine, to be smoked, or 'freebased' in user parlance, in a pipe.. A rock, in the ghettoes of L.. , sells for a mere $25 -- half the price of 1982.. (William Scobie, Los Angeles, Jan.. 12, 1985, p.. E21).. (The earliest citation in The Third Barnhart Dictionary of New English for rock is dated a year later.. ) The most recent neologisms can be researched in the online Info Globe available with the daily newspaper.. Info Globe is also a good mirror of contemporary North American usage, although a lexicographer would want to use it with the Globe Mail style book by the side.. Private communication from editor-in-chief.. Morton Benson claims (private communication and p.. ix of the BBI) that he has entered only major collocations which are those recurrent, unpredictable combinations that readily come to mind.. But unpredictable to whom and readily coming to whose mind? For example, under the headword wrinkle, in the sense of innovation, the only unpredictable combination that has apparently come to the author's mind is the latest wrinkle.. But DBase85 shows that new is the most frequent modifier of wrinkle, occurring five times more frequently than latest.. No one who relies on his own mind could have predicted this.. Further, the database shows that only three prepositions are used following wrinkle, on being twice more frequent than the others which are in and to.. Also There's is a recurrent feature of structures in which wrinkle is used, as in There's a new wrinkle to the autonomy agreement.. Only a good database can help a lexicographer determine such facts of language use.. Of 8,174 citations for operate that DBase85 generated, a check of the first 100 shows the verb having the following nouns as direct object: [Editor: nouns arranged in alphabetical order of operative nouns, not of modifiers]: aircraft (twice); business, clinic, company, corporation, distillery, transition house, laboratory, DEW line, mill, plant (2 each); project (2); information rack, restaurant, bus route, holiday schedule, ferry service, satellite receiving station, stores, foreign subsidiaries, system, remote-controlled tools, tours, and transmitter (1).. Use had 31,910 citations, the first 20 of which had these objects: attackers, deregulation, force, formula, incinerator, name (2); pistol, [Boeing] 767, scare tactics, and trademark.. Among other things, these collocations show that use is not a synonym or near synonym of operate, as the BBI's use of the comma in operate, use implies (BBI, xxxi).. To operate an abacus is to make it work, but to use one is to employ it; e.. , an elevator operator operates an elevator or makes it work, but the others use or employ it or, more idiomatically, people take elevators.. The word abacus itself occurs ten times in DBase85, eight of them as part of trade names and two in Shop assistants make their sales calculations on abacuses and the clack, clack, clack of an abacus and a wild Cantonese whoop.. The omission of entries such as abacus in a collocational dictionary makes room for more useful ones.. Benson objects that these words form only free combinations.. But the same could be said of zoo, for which the BBI lists at and in as collocations.. Zoological happens to collocate with garden, park, and society.. These are not free collocations, at least no so free as conference, director, interest, specimen, training, wonder, etc.. I find the ninefold distinction based on parts of speech used in the first collocational dictionary, Kenkyusha's New Dictionary of English Collocations by Prof.. Senkichiro Katsumata (first published in Tokyo, 1939), a simpler and sounder system when you consider the needs of a dictionary user.. This work, however, is somewhat flawed in regard to idiom and is badly in need of revision.. Errors are sure to occur in the first printing of any work of the complexity of a dictionary.. And this lexicographer believes it is not fair to pick and choose errors from dictionaries since they are homogeneous wholes.. Examining randomly selected sample sections is the only sensible way of doing it.. But if I were to pitch on a half-column of the BBI with eyes closed, this article would have taken up more space than the editor might be willing to allow it.. So, I will examine one two-line entry, the point of the exercise being that some of the errors in the dictionary could have been avoided if the lexicographers had used a database.. I am not unaware of the many good books and periodicals dealing with neologisms available on the market.. Some of the dozen entries I have used as examples may well have found their way into some of these publications before or after this article was written.. Also, a couple of items are to be found in Robert Chapman's New Dictionary of American Slang.. But the question I am asking here is simply that, given the evidence, how is it that these new words were passed over by the major dictionaries.. Most of these words, however, as well as scores of others such as cocooning, deep pocket, downstream, heli-ski, hypertext, ice (cocaine), infomercial, lifestyle advertising, loose cannon, negative option, people meter, pinstriper, risk arbitrage, spin doctor, stonewashed, surrogate mother, and (computer) virus, have been entered in The Penguin Canadian Dictionary.. However, tapping commercial databases for lexicographical citations is an expensive proposition.. The Globe Mail online charges $180 an hour.. If you are familiar with the strategies, a short session with The Washington Post that nets ten citations could cost you up to $40.. An information broker would add a surcharge of at least 35%.. Traditional lexicographers, some of them still wedded to their manual typewriters, have been kicking against the goad for over a decade.. The reactions to a paper ( Language Analysis and Lexicography by Microcomputer ) that I presented at the annual meeting of the American Dialect Society in 1981 varied as follows: The dean of American lexicographers, Clarence L.. Barnhart, when I visited him on that occasion, showed me his stack of Univac sorting cards from the fifties as if they were the state of the art in citation gathering; The Barnhart Dictionary Companion, started in 1985, is now a good example of a combination of the old and the new methods of data collection.. Robert W.. Burchfield, Editor of the O.. Supplements, among other things, wrote, Come off it! (a feeling echoed by Sidney Landau in his landmark book on lexicography), although the very next year he had begun subcribing to Lexis, Nexis, and Dialog.. Bob's challenging hope that from your millions of words on line or standing in reserve demonstrably better dictionaries will emerge has now been realized, at least by the New O.. , it being physically impossible to do better than the O.. John Sinclair of the University of Birmingham, on the other hand, was more forward-looking in 1981.. He wrote: Your technology must be way ahead of us.. I am really intrigued, and if your paper (please send) fleshes out your bare statements, I shall arrive at your doorstep pretty soon.. I have regularly sent John almost every lexicographical idea that has crossed my mind and I daresay he has made good use of them.. Two years before The Barnhart Dictionary Companion came out, I had sent out a proposal for something similar using databases such as Info Globe, Nexis, and Dialog.. I think it is high time the BDC faced some competition.. I would suggest a quarterly with the generic title Dictionary Companion to Current English.. I also believe there is room in some linguistic journal for a column headed Among the Older Words.. [2 June 1992]..

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