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    Archived pages: 23 . Archive date: 2013-09.

  • Title: Ostpolitik and the CSCE
    Descriptive info: .. Ostpolitik and the CSCE.. click button to enter.. more information below.. Since 1966, both the trend towards détente and the project of a conference on security in Europe went through various phases before finally resulting in a process leading to the creation of the CSCE in 1972.. Détente and the CSCE process both focussed on the territorial order in Europe to which the German question still held the key, and on the lessening of tensions in East-West relations and the expansion of contacts between Western and Eastern Europe.. The CSCE's Final Act, signed on August 1 st , 1975 , in Helsinki , finally offered a perspective on how the division of the continent in the Cold War might eventually be overcome.. Support for this vision varied according to the different actors and their motives.. As seen from the Federal Republic of Germany, the CSCE at least offered an opportunity to work for greater permeability of the inner-German border and in the long reach for an end to the nation's division.. Bonn 's second long-term goal was  ...   and goals of the Federal Republic of Germany in connection with those of its major Western allies during the years of détente, 1966-1975.. The origins, politics and ultimate goals of the Neue Ostpolitik devised by Brandt and Bahr are the focus of all research conducted within the framework of the project.. National interest and growing up remained key terms in the public debate of the 1970s, signalling a new phase in West German history and a deep desire for more independence in international affairs than had hitherto been possible.. Bonn acquired a greater influence within the Western alliance, and greater room for manoeuvre towards the Eastern bloc and vis-à-vis the so-called Third-World.. The controversy over the nature and significance of German national interest in 1989/90 all but neglected the results and definitions arrived at almost two decades earlier.. It is within this context that the project aims to analyse the relations between the FRG and its major Western allies (the United States, France and Britain), as well as considering the overall context of European integration and East-West détente..

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  • Title: The CSCE - Transforming Europe
    Descriptive info: Détente and CSCE (Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe) in Europe.. The states of the.. Warsaw Pact and the Federal Republic of Germany.. in their mutual perception and rapprochement.. 1966-1975.. an international history project.. at the University of Mannheim.. funded by the Volkswagen Foundation..

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  • Title: Detente and Ostpolitik
    Descriptive info: Détente and Ostpolitik 1966-1975.. funded by the Thyssen-Foundation..

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  • Title: Ostpolitik and the CSCE
    Descriptive info: Contact.. Universität Mannheim.. Seminar für Neuere Geschichte.. Projekt Ostpolitik and the CSCE.. Schloß.. 68131 Mannheim.. Phone: +49-(0)621/181-2260.. Fax: +49-(0)621/181-2254.. E-Mail:.. info@ostpolitik.. net.. To send us an e-mail you can also use the form below.. (Notice: All fields are required!).. Name.. E-Mail-Adress.. Subject.. Your Message:..

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  • Title: The CSCE - Transforming Europe
    Descriptive info: Scope of the project.. The research will focus on:.. 1.. perceptions of each others' national interests on either side of the East-West divide their underlying differences and partial parallelism.. 2.. the stages of rapprochement, particularly noticeable at the dividing line of the East-West conflict.. The project is based on the assumption that national perceptions are based both on a relatively rigid historical picture of the other side and simultaneously on long term changes in attitude.. Following these lines, the aim of the project is to provide an important contribution to the history of national perceptions and relations for the period in question, based on the closest cooperation between historians from Germany and Central and Eastern Europe.. Furthermore, this approach is bound to offer momentous insights into the key factors ruling the perception of Germany 's role within an enlarged Europe , at least for those countries represented in the project.. Methodological Approach.. In order to comply with the goals of the project, the history of East-West relations during the period in question shall be treated in light of three factors.. For all participants in the project these three topics will function as focuses of interest so that the specific national findings can be interlinked.. The following levels of analysis can be distinguished:.. - East-West communication.. - mutual perceptions and.. - bilateral relations within the international system.. Needless to say, these levels are interlinked in real history and present a network of mutual influences; for the purpose of analysis, however, the levels should be analysed as separate issues as much as possible.. The term communication is a key issue in two ways.. In historiography and social sciences it is used as having an analytical connotation.. At the same time, the programme will explore its uses and meaning in contemporary documents.. For the proponents of a new Ostpolitik of the FRG, the term even encapsulated the gist of their policy.. For Brandt, then still mayor of West Berlin , the consequences of the building of the Berlin Wall entailed that one needed as many points of real contact and as much meaningful communication as possible.. What Brandt and others were aiming for was a policy of East-West communication such as indeed took shape in the Final Act of the CSCE in 1975.. Communication was not meant to camouflage conflicts of interests, but to de-escalate existing conflicts of interest.. Communicative methods introduced a new element to East-West détente, providing for the exchange of information and thus introducing an element of greater precision to the perceptions each side had of the other.. Those who could be hoped to facilitate communication included politicians, top officials and journalists, as was the case, for example, in the secret channels of communication which were established in late 1969 between Bonn , Washington and Moscow.. In the early phase of the period of analysis, informal forms of dialogues prevailed, including non-official contacts through journalists, businessmen, church representatives, academics, representatives of political parties or trade unions, contacts which went well beyond private interest.. Non-governmental actors often stood in for their governments, which at this stage did not (yet) maintain diplomatic relations.. The network of lines of communication between East and West, which grew continuously over the decade preceding the CSCE summit in 1975, is one focus of the project.. It refers to the term of communicative acting  ...   the details of self-perceptions and the definition of interests of the states in question have to be brought into relation with the perceptions of their counterparts.. How compatible were self-perception (ie how did each side view itself?) and the perception of the other (ie how did each side view the other?)? To which extent were actors able to develop empathy and put themselves in the position of the other?.. West Germany 's Ostpolitik calculated on changing the status quo of the division of Germany and of Europe in the long term by preliminarily accepting it within the framework of a new European Security System.. The central question at this level of analysis within the project is how the Federal Government estimated the probabilities of realising its strategic goal and what possibilities were seen to influence the East and to induce the process of system-change.. On the other hand it has to be asked if this West German double-strategy (first, communication through contacts, treaties and co-operative for example economic projects, and, secondly, the inducement of change in the East through this communication) was recognised by the states of the Warsaw Pact; and if so, how it was judged.. Naturally, these processes of perception have to be treated in their full multi-faceted nature, and conflicting perceptions have to be treated with respect to the influence-groups involved (parties, economy, military etc.. ) and with respect to the ideological-programmatical background.. Exactly how perceptions were transformed into policy in the détente era is the focus of the third level of analysis.. This level will deal with bilateral and multilateral relations between the states involved and the decision-making process within their respective governments.. Individual phases and steps in the construction of relations between the states of the Warsaw Pact and the FRG are to be described and analysed in terms of both cross-bloc and intra-bloc auspices.. Of particular importance is the question of the room for manoeuvre of the individual states.. How and to what extent did détente and the CSCE process influence the state and nature of the alliance systems?.. The starting point for both the analysis of political relations and the other two levels of analysis is the assumption that the traditional use of the term Cold War requires both limitation and further precision.. While international research habitually uses the term to describe the entire period between the end of the Second World War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union , the various forms of the East-West conflict differed too significantly to allow for a continuing characterisation of relations as simply the state of Cold War.. The project consequently uses the term East-West conflict as a category for the global-political conflict which dominated international politics in the second half of the 20 th century.. Furthermore, the project starts from the hypothesis that the period from 1966-1975 saw a transformation of the Cold War as one form of the East-West conflict towards détente as a new form of the pursuit of this conflict.. Already contemporaries spoke about the fact that the traditional categories of East and West [had] lost their importance.. In 1973, Brezhnev declared the ideology of the Cold war to be obsolete, and Kissinger stressed in 1975 that the East-West conflict was then pursued by modern methods which would stand in marked contrast to those of the Cold War..

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  • Title: The CSCE - Transforming Europe
    Descriptive info: Publications.. Here you will find publications related to the project (requires Acrobat Reader).. For publications on.. Detente and Ostpolitik please click here.. Oliver Bange: Die Außenpolitik der DDR-Plädoyer für ein vernachlässigtes Forschungsfeld, in: Friedrich Boll et al.. (eds), Archiv für Sozialgeschichte, Jg.. 44, Bonn 2004, S.. 492-500.. Click here to read.. Gottfried Niedhart: Anglo-American Relations in the Era of Détente and the Challenge of Ostpolitik, in: Ursula Lehmkuhl / Gustav Schmidt (Hg.. ): From Enmity to Friendship.. Anglo-American Relations in the 19 th and 20 th Century, Augsburg : Wißner 2005, S.. 115-130.. Click here to read.. Oliver Bange: Die große Koalition ist viel besser als ihr Ruf Unter der Kiesinger-Regierung wurde die Republik  ...   aus amerikanischer, deutscher und französischer Sicht, in: Chantal Metzger / Hartmut Kaelble (Hg.. ): Deutschland Frankreich Nordamerika: Transfers, Imaginationen, Beziehungen, Stuttgart: Steiner 2006, S.. 35-50.. Gottfried Niedhart: Deeskalation durch Kommunikation.. Zur Ostpolitik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in der Ära Brandt, in: Corinna Hauswedell (Hg.. ), Deeskalation von Gewaltkonflikten seit 1945, Essen: Klartext 2006, S.. 99-114.. Oliver Bange: Ostpolitik Etappen und Desiderate der Forschung.. Zur internationalen Einordnung von Willy Brandts Außenpolitik, in: Friedrich Boll et al.. 46, Bonn 2006, pp.. 713-736.. Oliver Bange: NATO and the Non-Proliferation Treaty: triangulations between Bonn, Washington, and Moscow, in: Andreas Wenger/Christian Nünlist/Anna Locher (eds), Transforming NATO in the Cold War Challenges beyond deterrence in the 1960's, London 2007, S.. 162-180..

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  • Title: The CSCE - Transforming Europe
    Descriptive info: Team members.. Prof.. Dr.. Gottfried Niedhart.. The history of international relations in the 20th century.. for further information (contact, publications, languages etc.. ) please click on the name.. PD Dr.. Oliver Bange.. History of detente and Ostpolitik in Europe, 1966-1975: coordination and contradiction of political strategems of the major powers and personalities.. Jordan Baev.. History of civil-military relations in Bulgaria until 1989/90 and Bulgaria in the  ...   War II and the role of the East Central European states in the Cold War.. Wanda Jarzabek.. Polish Foreign Policy 1945 1989, Polish responses to the Ostpolitik, Poland and détente.. Carmen Riinoveanu, M.. A.. Svetlana Savranskaya.. Oldrich Tuma.. Katja Schuster.. PhD Thesis on "The Consequences of Détente - A Comparison between the GDR, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria, 1969-1979.. to send an E-Mail please click on the name..

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  • Title: The CSCE - Transforming Europe
    Descriptive info: Links.. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.. Archives Diplomatique de France.. Archiv für Zeitgeschichte.. Hans-Böckler-Stiftung.. Bundeskanzler-Willy-Brandt-Stiftung.. Bundesarchiv.. Bundesbeauftragte für die Unterlagen der Staatsicherheit.. Clio online.. Cold War History Journal.. Cold War History Research Center Budapest.. Commision of History of International Relations.. Danish Institute of International Affairs.. DHI London.. DHI Paris.. DHI Warschau.. DHI Washington.. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.. Haus der Geschichte.. Historicum..  ...   Lyndon B.. Johnson Library.. Bruno-Kreisky-Archiv.. Lemnitzer Center for NATO and European Union Studies.. Machiavelli Center for Cold War Studies.. Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt.. National Archives and Record Administration.. National Security Archive.. NATO Archives.. Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung.. Parallel History Project.. Public Record Office.. Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung.. Social Science Information Gateway.. Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.. Fritz-Thyssen-Stiftung.. VL Zeitgeschichte.. Volkswagen Stiftung.. Woodrow Wilson Center..

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  • Title: The CSCE - Transforming Europe
    Descriptive info: Projekt The CSCE - Transforming Europe..

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  • Title: Detente and Ostpolitik
    Descriptive info: Research focus:.. There are three major questions the project attends to.. The origins of détente and Ostpolitik.. Brandt's Ostpolitik constitutes the second major phase in the formation of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany.. It brought together strains of thought developed in Washington and Paris and combined them in an effort to serve the ultimate goal of West German policy of the time: unification.. Brandt and Bahr had thought about new ways of pursuing this goal at least since the building of the Wall in 1961.. But it was only when they took over the Foreign Office during the Grand Coalition that these ideas were cast into an overall and very secretive policy.. Western perceptions of Germany, détente and Ostpolitik.. Research on these questions has to go well beyond the classic scope of bilateral relations.. Multilateral networking became the basis of the Ostpolitik of the Western nations.. It accommodated, and safeguarded, the ever-increasing influence of Western Germany in Europe, NATO and East-West relations in the 1960s and 1970s.. A key question to be answered is  ...   and Eastern policies rapidly and largely successfully adapted to the overall framework of détente.. The Federal Republic s subsequent initiatives, which put Brandt's Ostpolitik at the forefront of the movement towards détente in the early 1970s, were clear evidence of an enhanced self-consciousness and independence in Bonn.. The Federal Republic's foreign policy aimed at stability in Europe.. Yet it also aimed at utilising its increasing communication and contacts with the East (politics, business, culture, science etc.. ) for a peaceful change to the long-term advantage of the West.. This, according to their secret calculation, would lead to a situation in which even the solution of the so-called German question appeared feasible.. Archival research:.. Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes, Berlin.. Archiv der sozialen Demokratie, Bonn.. Bundesarchiv Koblenz.. Bundesarchiv Berlin/SAPMO.. Archiv des Deutschen Liberalismus, Gummersbach.. Archiv für Christlich-Demokratische Politik, St.. Augustin.. Public Record Office, London.. Labour Party Archives, Archive Centre, Manchester.. Conservative Party Archives, Bodleian Library, Oxford.. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas.. National Archives, Washington, D.. C.. John F.. Kennedy Library, Boston.. Archives Nationales, Paris.. Archives du Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Paris..

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  • Title: Detente and Ostpolitik
    Descriptive info: The CSCE - Transforming Europe please click here.. Bange, Oliver: Ostpolitik as a source of intra-bloc tensions.. Paper presented at the Lemnitzer Centre for NATO Studies / Ohio State University.. Bange, Oliver/Niedhart, Gottfried: Die Relikte der Nachkriegszeit beseitigen.. Ostpolitik in der zweiten außenpolitischen Formationsphase der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und ihre internationalen Rahmenbedingungen 1969-1971, in: Archiv für Sozialgeschichte 44 (2004), S.. 415-448.. Short Report.. on the visit of Barthold Witte at the University Mannheim.. Albert, Reiner: Das Sowjetunion-Bild in der sozialliberalen Ostpolitik 1969-1975, in: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, hrsg.. im Auftrag des Institut für deutsche Geschichte von Diner, Dan; Band 25: Deutschland und Rußland, Gerlingen, 1995.. Niedhart, Gottfried: Friedens- und Interessenwarung: Zur Ostpolitik der F.. D.. P.. in Opposition und sozial-liberaler Regierung 1968-1970, in: Fleck, H.. G.. /Frölich,J.. /Padtberg, B.. /Scheerer,H.. (Hrsg.. ): Jahrbuch zur Liberalismus-Forschung, Baden-Baden, 1995.. Niedhart, Gottfried: The Federal Republic's Ostpolitik and the United States: Initiatives and Constraints, in: Burk, K.. /Stokes, M.. (Ed.. ):  ...   und Pompidou, in: P.. Guillen/I.. Mieck (hrsg.. ): Deutschland - Frankreich - Rußland, München, 2000.. Bange Oliver: Ihn selber wieder einmal reden hören - Rezension von Willy Brandt, Berliner Ausgabe, Band 2 und 4, Edition des Nachlasses, in: Nürnberger Nachrichten, 13.. Dezember 2000.. Bange, Oliver: Ostpolitik the Hidden Agenda, open paper delivered at the London School of Economics, February 26th, 2003.. Niedhart, Gottfried: The British Reachtion towards Ostpolitik.. Anglo - West German Relations in the Era of Détende 1967-1971; inHaase, Christian (Ed.. ): Debating Foreign Affairs.. The Public and Britisch Forein Polic since 1867, Berlin/Wien, 2003, S.. 130-152.. Niedhart, Gottfried: Zustimmung und Irritationen: Die Westmächte und die deutsche Ostpolitik 1969/70; in: U.. Lehmkuhl/C.. Wurm/H.. Zimmermann (Hrsg.. ): Deutschland, Großbritanien, Amerika.. Politik, Gesellschaft und Internationale Geschichte im 20.. Jahrhundert.. Festschrift für Gustav Schmidt, Stuttgart, 2003, S.. 227-245.. Niedhart, Gottfried: Frankreich und die USA im Dialog über Detente und Ostpolitik 1969; in: Francia.. Forschungen zur westeuropäischen Geschichte 31/3 (2004), S.. 65-85..

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    Archived pages: 23